Open Access Original Research Article

Some Morphological and Biochemical Changes in the Kidney of Adult Wistar Rats Following Aluminium Chloride Exposures

A. J. Ajibade, B. D. Kehinde, A. A. Atanda, O. O. Adeleye

Asian Journal of Research in Nephrology, Page 1-9

In modern life, exposure to aluminium is inevitable as it is released primarily from natural process. Humans are exposed to aluminium through food packaging, medicines, water and air. Kidney is a urinary organ which eliminates most toxins and other foreign substances that are either produced by the body or ingested into the body.

The present study investigated some of the effects of Aluminium chloride on the kidney of adult wistar rats. Thirty two (32) rats of both sexes were used for this study and were separated into four groups based on their gender. The rats in group A (8 rats) were regarded as the control and they received only distilled water and stock diet throughout the period of experiment. The rats in group B, C and D orally received Aluminium chloride at 500mg, 1000mg and 1500 mg/kg respectively for 31 days. The rats were sacrificed on the 32nd day by cervical dislocation. The trunk of each rat was dissected and blood was collected from the heart for biochemical evaluation. The kidneys were removed, rinsed and weighed before fixing in 10% formal saline for histological studies using H&E staining techniques.

Morphometric study shows significant differences in the organ weights between kidney weights in control and aluminium-treated rats. Kidney weights of aluminium-treated rats were significantly reduced (P<0.05) compared with controls. The decrease was significant (P<0.05) in both kidneys in group B and in the left kidney for group D.

The biochemical evaluation also showed significant increase (P<0.05) in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea and creatinine level in Aluminium- treated groups.

The histological results showed architectural disarrangement, including degenerative changes and dilatation and distortion of proximal tubule which increased in a dose-dependent manner in experimental groups.

This study concluded that Aluminium chloride have adversely affected the histology of the kidney in treated wistar rats which may invariably result in impairment of renal function.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Renal Function and Electrolyte Balance in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Getahun Chala Diribsa, Yekoye Abebe Kinfe, Senbeta Guteta Abdissa

Asian Journal of Research in Nephrology, Page 1-12

Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and electrolyte imbalance are known in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cause extra morbidity and mortality. However, there is no published study on renal disease and electrolyte imbalance among cardiovascular (CV) patients in Ethiopia.

Objective: To assess the renal function and electrolyte balance in patients with CVD at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH).  

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to November 2017, on 163 CV patients attending the emergency department (ED) of TASH.

Results: CKD, defined as estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, was found in 39 (23.9%) and 35 (21.5%) participants according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Chronic Kidney Disease- Epidemiological Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations, respectively. CKD was significantly associated with hypertension (p= 0.019), systolic blood pressure (SBP), (p = 0.009), serum creatinine (SCr), (p = 0.001) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), (p = 0.001) when defined by CKD-EPI equation and with SBP (p = 0.023), SCr (p = 0.001) and BUN (p = 0.001) when defined by MDRD equation. In serum electrolyte disorders, 80 (49.1%) patients had serum Cl- imbalance, 59 (36.2%) had serum Na+ imbalance and 37 (22.7%) had serum K+ imbalance. Loop diuretic was significantly associated with hypochloremia (p = 0.001) while potassium sparing diuretic was associated with the presence of hyponatremia (p = 0.036) and hypochloremia (p = 0.003).

Conclusion: CKD was present in 21.5– 23.9% of CV patients, but it is usually undiagnosed using SCr alone. Therefore, GFR should be considered as an estimate of renal insufficiency regardless of SCr levels. In addition, electrolyte disorders were also higher among CV patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Blood Volume Monitoring on Reducing Hypotensive Episodes in Hemodialysis Patients

Fazal Mohammad, Aizaz Mand Ahmed, Rizwan Dogar, Fozia Mohammad Bakhsh, Tahir .

Asian Journal of Research in Nephrology, Page 1-6

Objective: To compare the frequency of intradialytic hypotensive episodes in haemodialysis (HD) patients by using conventional hemodialysis versus assessment with Crite-Line.

Study Design:  Cross-sectional survey.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Hemodialysis unit of Sheikh Zayed Federal Postgraduate Medical Institute Lahore from 1st August 2009 to 31 January 2010.

Methodology: Fifty patients were included in the study according to inclusion criteria and the study was divided into two phases. In the first phase, all 50 patients underwent two sessions of haemodialysis by conventional haemodialysis machine. In the second phase same 50 patients underwent two sessions of haemodialysis by blood volume monitor by Crit-line. The intradialytic hypotensive episode was recorded in both phases when there was a decrease in systolic blood pressure by ≥20 mm Hg and a decrease in MAP by 10 mm Hg. All this information was collected through proforma. Statistical analyses were conducted by SPSS version 16.

Results: Total 200 hemodialysis sessions were included, there were 62 (62%) sessions of intradialytic hypotension in conventional hemodialysis (phase 1) and 43 (43%) sessions of intradialytic hypotension in Crit-line (phase II). The mean age was 47.02±14.63 in both phases of the study. Male to female ratio was 1:1.4.

Conclusions: It is concluded that the closed-loop system for automatic profiling of ultrafiltration by Crit-line provides reliable blood pressure stabilization in patients during all phases of HD treatment. The Crit-line method of hemodialysis is better in reducing hypotensive episode during hemodialysis then the other methods of conventional hemodialysis.