Open Access Minireview Article

Marijuana Use and Its Effects on the Kidney

Shobhana Nayak–Rao, M. Pradeep Shenoy

Asian Journal of Research in Nephrology, Page 1-6

Cannabis (marijuana) continues to be the most commonly used illicit psychoactive substance globally. However little is known about trends of marijuana use in a large proportion of the world’s population, including in India. Some countries such as the United States have legalised marijuana use in some states for recreational and medicinal uses. In animal models, the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system plays a role in regulating kidney hemodynamics and sodium transport and may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic and obesity related nephropathy and kidney fibrosis. Although there is no evidence currently that marijuana use plays a role in the pathogenesis of kidney disease, data in humans are limited to case reports of AKI in the setting of synthetic cannabinoid use. The present review focuses on the role of the eCB system in normal kidney function and in various diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Persea americana Seed on Potassium Aluminium Sulphate Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

E. O. Nweke, I. J. Okafor, J. K. Opara

Asian Journal of Research in Nephrology, Page 1-8

Aim: This study evaluates the effect of Persea americana on potassium aluminium sulphate induced toxicity in the kidney of female wistar rat.

Methodology: Twenty five (25) female wistar rats weighing between 150-200 g were randomly divided into five (5) groups of five rats each. The groups were designated as groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Group 1 served as the control, group 2 received 2.3 ml of potassium aluminium sulphate only, group 3 received 0.8 ml of P. americana only, Group 4 received 2.3 ml of potassium aluminium sulphate only for 7 days and treated with 0.2 ml of P. americana while group 5 received 2.3 ml of potassium aluminium sulphate only for 7 days and treated with 0.8 ml of P. americana. The administration was given via oral route and lasted for a period of 28 days. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed, the kidneys harvested for histological examination and blood sample collected for creatinine and urea analysis. Their morphological differences were observed under a light microscope.

Results: The histological changes revealed coagulated necrosis of glomeruli and renal tubules and fatty changes in group 2. Treatment with P. americana restored the renal architecture to normal. There was significant increase (P<0.05) in mean serum levels of urea in groups 2, 4 and 5 when compared to group 1 and a significant decrease (P<0.05)  in the mean serum levels of urea in groups 1, 3 and 4 when compared to group 2. Furthermore, there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the mean serum levels of creatinine in groups 2, 4 and 5 when compared to group 1 and a significant decreases (P<0.05) in the mean serum levels of creatinine in groups 1 and 3 when compared to group 2.

Conclusion:  The results indicated a nephrotoxic effect of postassium aluminum sulphate with P. americana exerting a protective effect against it.