Asian Journal of Research in Nephrology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Research in Nephrology</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/AJRN/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of&nbsp;‘Nephrology research’. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Asian Journal of Research in Nephrology en-US Asian Journal of Research in Nephrology Pantoprazole-Domperidone Induced Hyperprolactinemia and Galactorrhea in a Chronic Kidney Disease Patient on Dialysis <p>Pantoprazone-Domperidone fixed-dose combinations are commonly used in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients on dialysis. The medication helps in control of drug induced gastritis that can occur due to several medications including oral calcium and iron supplements. Besides this the pantoprazole-domperidone combination helps in treatment of uremic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastroesophageal reflux disease.</p> <p>Rarely, pantoprazole and domperidone may induce galactorrhea. We report a case of a female patient on dialysis who developed drug induced hyperprolactinemia and galactorrhea due to therapeutic dose of a fixed-dose combination of pantoprazole (40 mg) and domperidone (30 mg), used for treatment of gastritis- the duration of therapy being 4 months. Galactorrhea subsided after discontinuation of pantoprazole-domperidone.</p> Deepak Kumar Chitralli Anu Ann Abraham Brian Mark Churchill Rajeshwari Janakiraman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-29 2021-12-29 38 41 A Case Report on Fish Bile Toxicity- A Rare Cause of Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome <p>A case study on&nbsp; fish bile poisoning is reported. After ingestion of gall bladder of Labeo rohita fish for allergy treatment purpose&nbsp; initially presented with gastrointestinal symptoms such as cramping pain in, nausea and vomiting within 12 hours after ingestion. Subsequently renal, hepatic dysfunctions and cardiac dysfunction were found in that case. The patient recovered fully with conservative treatment and supportive hemodialysis.</p> Farhana Yasmin Shireen Afroz Tahmina Ferdaus Umme Tanjila Sukriti Baroi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-29 2021-12-29 42 46 Thrombotic and Infective Complications in 3 Temporary Non-Tunneled Central Venous Hemodialysis Catheters <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Central venous catheter is a widely accepted form of permanent vascular access which is evolved as a bridge to optimal management in hemodialysis patients. Despite great advances, catheter-related thrombosis and catheter-related bloodstream infection cause catheter loss. To mitigate this situation, role of catheter lock solutions has been introduced. As Sodium Bicarbonate is easily available, low cost and associated with less hemorrhagic manifestations.</p> <p><strong>Aim of the study:</strong> This study aimed to assess the use of sodium-bi-carbonate as catheter lock solution in preventing hemodialysis catheter loss.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This Longitudinal study was conducted at the department of Nephrology in Dhaka Medical College and Hospital for a period of January 2019 to June 2020 following ethical approval. A total of 228 patients finally entered in the study following selection criteria. Study participants were divided into three groups according to the nature of catheter lock solutions, group A Sodium-bi-carbonate, group B Normal saline and Group C Heparin diluted with normal saline. Each group included 76 patients. All patients were subjected detail history taking and relevant investigations. A central venous catheter was inserted all the needful. Intraluminal SBCLS, NSCLS and HCLS lock solution were used in three groups accordingly. All the patients were followed up at 1st week, 2nd week and 3rd week and all information was recorded in separate case record form. After checking all the data was analyzed by SPSS 23.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Mean age of the study participants was 54.34 (±8.79). Female respondents were slightly predominant with a percentage of 53.1% and 46.9% male. Socio demographic features were statistically similar in all groups. Catheter related thrombosis was noted at 1.35% in the SBCLS group, 13.69% in the NSCLS group and 8.1% in HCLS group. CRT was lower in the SBCLS group than other two groups with statistical significance (p&lt;.05). Catheter related blood stream infection was observed at 1.35%, 8.21% and 16.21% of patients in the SBCLS, NSCLS and HCLS groups accordingly. In the SBCLS group CRBSI was significantly fewer than other groups (p&lt;.05). Causes of a catheter loss due to malfunction 4.05% in the SBCLS group, 4.1% in NSCLS group and 5.41% in the HCLS group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Data concluded that, standard NaHCO<sub>3</sub> solution for locking catheter demonstrated significantly less CRT and CRBSI in comparison to normal saline and heparin diluted normal saline. A further clinical trial with a large study Population is recommended.</p> A. K. M. Tariqul Hassan Md. Nazrul Islam Golam Fahad Bhuiyan Mithila Akhtar Nahid Akter Md. Dilder Hossain Badal Sonia Mahjabin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 7 17 Epidemiological, Clinical and Evolutionary Profiles of Patients Admitted in a Dialytic Emergency Situation at the University Hospital of Brazzaville <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Emergency dialyses often require some timely extrarenal purification procedures. In addition, the vital and functional prognosis could be jeopardized.</p> <p>Objective of this study was to study the epidemiological, etiological and prognostic aspects of emergency dialysis at the University Hospital of Brazzaville.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong> We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study, with prospective data collection, over a period of one year (from September 01, 2019 to August 30, 2020), carried out at the University Hospital of Brazzaville. Patients of any age with acute or chronic renal failure requiring emergency dialysis for the first time were included.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The incidence of emergency dialyses was 31.33%. The average age was 48 ± 17 years. Men were the most represented in this study with 64 cases (68%) and the female sex 30 cases (32%) for a sex ratio was 2.13. Acute renal failure (ARF) was the predominant type of renal failure in 61 patients (64.89%) with the most common etiology being acute tubular necrosis in 16 patients (17.1%). Chronic renal failure (CRF) was found in 33 patients (35.11%). The most common indications for emergency hemodialysis were major uremic syndrome in 48 patients (51.07%) followed by acute pulmonary edema in 21 patients (22.34%). An extrarenal purification therapy was done in emergency in 46 patients admitted in the department of nephrology, i.e. 48.94%. The procedure of choice was intermittent hemodialysis with a synthetic membrane. The mean duration of the first hemodialysis session was 3 hours ± 49 minutes and an average ultrafiltration of 1106 ± 759 ml in 28 patients. The other patients had dialysis without ultrafiltration. The vascular access was exclusively a femoral catheter. An anticoagulant was used in 37 patients each dialyses, ie 80.34%. Eight patients (17.39%) had died on post dialysis. On the other hand, for ARF, renal function recovery was complete in 39.13% of cases, partial in 17.39%. 17.39% of CRF patients had a favorable course and 8.7% a course to CRF. The univariate analysis showed diabetes, hypertension, underlying nephropathy, heart disease, and type of renal failure are risk factors for unfavorable development and mortality.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In the Republic of Congo, patients are generally admitted in late stages of renal failure which, moreover, aggravates the already difficulty of access to an eventual extrarenal purification therapy and increases cases of emergency dialyses with a significant morbidity and mortality.</p> G. H. Mahoungou D. T. Eyeni Sinomono Y. I. Dimi Nyanga E. Foungou Tsiloulou S. Bouithy-Mongo P. E. Ngadzali- Ngabe A. C. Tiafumu Konde G.F Otiobanda R. Loumingou A.P Bouya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-13 2021-12-13 18 27 A Study on the Pharmacokinetic Profile and Clinical Outcome of Generic Tacrolimus (Cidimus®) Versus Reference Tacrolimus (Prograf®) in De Novo Kidney Transplant Recipients <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> Tacrolimus is the cornerstone immunosuppressive medication of kidney transplantation.&nbsp; This study sought to demonstrate bioequivalence and non-inferiority in the clinical outcomes of renal transplant recipients administered either reference tacrolimus (Prograf®) or generic tacrolimus (Cidimus®).&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A randomized controlled study on standard immunologic risk primary kidney transplant patients were given either reference or generic Tacrolimus and standard doses of mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone and followed up to 6 months post- transplant. An abbreviated area under the curve (AUC) profile on Day 3 post-transplant using C0, C2 and C4 and Cmax and Tmax were determined.&nbsp; Adverse events including new onset diabetes after transplant (NODAT) were noted. Graft biopsy was performed for suspected acute rejection (BPAR).&nbsp; Graft and patient survival were reported.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were 44 patients randomized and 22 were assigned to each arm.&nbsp; Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. There was 100% patient and graft survival between the two groups after 6 months (p&lt;0.05).&nbsp; The most common adverse event was urinary tract infection (UTI) in 6.82% of the study population. Incidences of biopsy proven acute rejection (BPAR) (p 0.55) and new onset diabetes after transplant (NODAT) (p 0.32) were not statistically significant between the two groups. There were 1 (4.55%) and 2 (9.09%) patients who developed BPAR in the Prograf and Cidimus group respectively.&nbsp; One patient (4.55%) in the Cidimus group developed NODAT.&nbsp;&nbsp; Both CMAX and AUC of Cidimus® and Prograf® had a 90% CI of differences of -0.1662 to 0.0695 and -0.1594 to 0.0356 respectively, which is within the bioequivalence confidence interval of -0.2231 to 0.223.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Generic Tacrolimus Cidimus® was bioequivalent to reference Tacrolimus (Prograf®) and was non- inferior based on pharmacokinetic parameters and clinical outcomes up to 6 months post-transplant.&nbsp;</p> Romina A. Danguilan Mel-Hatra I. Arakama Bryan Christian G. Ilagan Marc Angelo P. Hizon Rizza Antoinette Y. So ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 28 37 Review Article on Treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome in Pediatrics <p>Nephrotic syndrome is a illness caused by idiopathic diseases like minimal change nephrotic syndrome and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membrane proliferative Glomerulonephritis, membranous Glomerulonephritis and is characterized by increased permeability across the glomerular filtration barrier. Nephrotic syndrome is classified as primary nephrotic syndrome secondary nephrotic syndrome, congenital nephrotic syndrome, and infantile nephrotic syndrome. Nephrotic syndrome consisting of four clinical features like nephrotic range proteinuria edema hyperlipidemia, hypoalbuminemia.</p> <p>The main cause of nephrotic syndrome are diseases associated with drugs, neoplasia, and rarely genetic disorders. nephrotic syndrome is a chronic relapsing disease for most of steroid response drugs for treatment of nephrotic syndrome corticosteroids not so with immunosuppressive agents people will dependent on corticosteroid remission and some are corticosteroid resistant disease with poor renal prognosis. Using drugs to treat nephrotic syndrome, several complications are improper growth, metabolism, behaviour in patient.</p> Sk. Md. Abbas A. Noorjahan C. Bhargav Reddy Y. Saivani R. E. Ugandhar C. Madhusudhan Chetty ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-09 2021-11-09 1 6