In Situ Single-Pass Perfused Rabbit Intestinal Study Sample Analysis of Ractopamine by UPLC

Fatima. Namzi

National College of Pharmacy, KMCT Group of Institutions, Manassery, Kozhikode-673602, Kerala, India.

Kathirvel. Singaram

National College of Pharmacy, KMCT Group of Institutions, Manassery, Kozhikode-673602, Kerala, India.

Raja Rajeswari. Katta *

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Sri Sivani College of Pharmacy, Srikakulam-532 402, Andhra Pradesh, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Researchers have struggled in recent years to anticipate how oral drugs would be absorbed by people, and numerous permeability study approaches have been created for a variety of uses, including biowaiver procedures. The Single-Pass Intestinal Perfusion (SPIP) technique, used on rats, can produce permeability results that are most similar to in vivo circumstances. Since SPIP in rats is the closest approximation to in vivo settings, calculations for absorption prediction in humans and SPIP in rats may show the transport pathways and/or pre-systemic metabolism implicated on permeation processes of pharmaceuticals. In order to increase feed efficiency and promote growth in cattle, ractopamine hydrochloride, a commercial beta-adrenergic agonist, is frequently used as a dietary supplement. Currently, muscle and liver are the only regulatory target tissues (as authorised in the New Animal Drug Application with the Food and Drug Administration) for ractopamine residue testing. The study's goal is to create and validate a UPLC assay method to assess whether or not perfused ractopamine is detectable and quantifiable in cow small intestine. Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) reversed phase column is used for the separation. Acetonitrile and 0.01M ammonium formate are used as the mobile phase in gradient mode with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The guiding principles are satisfied by the precision, accuracy, extraction recovery, matrix effect, and stability. The created approach was successfully applied to a perfusion research in the small intestine of a rabbit, and the samples were analysed by Empower software, in order to verify the sensitivity and selectivity of the method in a real-time context. Ractopamine has a Peff value of 0.022 0.003 x 10-4, indicating that the jejunum region has minimal permeability for it.

Keywords: UPLC, Ractopamine, Perfusion, Small Intestine, Validation

How to Cite

Namzi , F., Singaram , K., & Katta , R. R. (2023). In Situ Single-Pass Perfused Rabbit Intestinal Study Sample Analysis of Ractopamine by UPLC. Asian Journal of Research in Nephrology, 6(1), 101–113. Retrieved from


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