Renal Induced Damage Following Mercury Exposure in Adult Wistar Rats

Main Article Content

A. J. Ajibade
M. Olufemi

Abstract

This study investigated the histomorphological effect of mercury chloride on the kidney. Heavy metals are hazardous substances that cause serious health risk to ecosystems and organisms due to their high toxicity conferred by nature of their environmental persistence. Mercury is a well-known toxic heavy metal to animals as well as humans. Mercury occurs naturally in the environment in different chemical forms. Elemental mercury is the form used in dental amalgams. Forms more commonly found in nature are inorganic mercury and organic mercury. All mercury forms are considered toxic. It is being widely used in the industrial, medical, agriculture and other fields.

Materials and Methods: Thirty six (36) adult wistar rats of both sexes, weighing between 110 g-300 g were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C, and D with nine animals per group. The animals in groups B, C, and D were administered mercury chloride orally at the concentration of 0.2 mg/kg, 0.4mg and 0.5 mg/kg body weights respectively while group (A) served as control and was given distilled water. The administration lasted for a period of 21 days and on the 22nd day all the groups of rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, blood was collected through cardiac puncture and the kidneys were carefully removed and weighed immediately with a sensitive balance and then fixed in 10% formol saline. The tissues were processed and sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin stain for histological studies. The results showed that the mean kidney weight in groups B and C increased insignificantly (P>0.05), compared to the control group while group D decreased significantly compared to the control group.

In the biochemical analysis there was significant increase (P<0.05).in alanine transaminase,, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities in mercury- treated group B, C and D compared to the control group A. Histological study of the kidney revealed that C and D treated groups showed marked degenerative changes, fibrosis and hemorrhage showing varying degrees of renal injury marked by focal sclerosis of the glomerulus, widening of the Bowman’s space and hyper cellularity and complete collapse of the glomerulus.

The study concluded that exposure to mercury chloride induced nephrotoxic effect on the kidney of adult wistar rats.

Keywords:
Mercury chloride, kidney, histomorphology, histological changes aspartate transaminase, alkaline phospatase, alanine transaminase.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ajibade, A. J., & Olufemi, M. (2021). Renal Induced Damage Following Mercury Exposure in Adult Wistar Rats. Asian Journal of Research in Nephrology, 4(1), 22-31. Retrieved from https://journalajrn.com/index.php/AJRN/article/view/30112
Section
Original Research Article

References

Agrawal S, Flora G, Bhatnagar P, Flora S. JS. Cell. Mol. Biol. 2014;60:13.

Nwangwa EK, Nwokocha CR, Uzuegbu U E, Ovuakporaye SI. The bioaccumulation of mercury in kidney and liver of wistar rat exposed to methyl mercury biomed. Pharmacol J. 2008;1(1).

World Health Organisation (WHO). Methyl mercury Environ. Health crit. 1990; 101:144.

Martinez-Finley EJ, Aschner M. Curr. Environ. Health Rep; 2014.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Toxicological; 1989.

Wiggers GA, Peçanha FM, Briones AM, Pérez-Girón JV, Miguel M, Vassallo DV, Cachofeiro V, Alonso MJ, Salaices M.. Am. J. Physiol: Heart Circ. Physiol. 2008;295, 1033.

Lohren H, Blagojevic L, Fitkau R, Ebert F, Schildknecht S, Leist M, Schwerdtle T. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 2015;32:200.

Bernhof RA. J. Environ. Public Health. 2008;2012:1.

Grigoletto JC, Oliveira AS, Muñoz SIS, Alberguini LBA, Takayanagui AMM. Ciênc. Saúde Coletiva; 2008.

Madsen KMM, Christensen EF. Effects of mercury on lysosomal protein digestion in the kidney proximal tubule. Invest. 1978; 38:165-171.

Hong YS, Kim YM, Lee KE. J. Prev. Med. Public Health; 2012.

Yasutake A, Hirayama K, Inouye M. Sex difference in acute renal dysfunction induced by methylmercury in mice. Ren. Fail. 1990;12(4):233-240.

Moreira FR, Moreira JC. Effects of lead exposure on the human body and health implications Rev. Panam. Salud Publica. 2004;15:119-129.

Clarkson TW, Magos L. Toxicology of mercury and its chemical compounds. Cri Rev Toxicol. 2006;36(8):609-62.

Hursh JB, Sichak SP, Clarkson TW. In vitro oxidation of mercury by the blood. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1988;63:266–73.

Parker SK, Schwartz B, Todd J, Pickering LK. Thimerosal containing vaccines and autistic spectrum disorder: A critical review of published original data. Pediatrics. 2004;114:793–804.

National Research Council. Neem: A tree for solving global problems. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1992.

Kirsten MM, Arvid BM. Effects of chronic mercury exposure on the rat kidney cortex as studied morphometrically by light and electron microscopy virchows archiv. 1981;37;137–152.

Nilgun A, Berrin Zuhal, Altunkaynak M EA, Omur GDDU, Hayati MA. Inhalation of mercury vapor can cause the toxic effects on rat kidney. Renal Failure. 2016;3:465-473.

Enas SA, Adel MR. The risk of occupational exposure to mercury vapor in some public dental clinics of Baghdad city. Iraq Inhal Toxicol. 2017;229(9):397.