Protective Effect of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera on Nephrotoxicity and Liver Injury Induced by Sodium Chloride in Wistar Albino Rats

Main Article Content

Nwadike Constance
Oly-Alawuba Nkeiruka
Dike-Ndudim Joy
Nosiri Chidi Ijeoma
Ezekwe Ahamefula
Akanazu Chidimma


Protective effect of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on nephrotoxicity and liver injury induced by sodium chloride in Wistar albino rats was studied. M. oleifera collected from Imo State University School farm was prepared into an extract, and given orally to groups (III, IV and V) of test rats against experimental control rats (group II) that were only induced, alongside with normal control rats (group I) that were neither induced with sodium chloride nor received aqueous extract as treatment. Result of weight changes in rats revealed significant increase (p<0.05) in % weight change of test rats (groups III, IV and V) against the experimental control rats (group II). % weight change in test rats increased insignificantly (p>0.05) when compared to normal control. Urea and creatinine levels significantly reduced (p<0.05) in test rats against experimental control but increased significantly (p>0.05) when compared to those of the normal control. The liver enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) significantly reduced (p<0.05) when compared to those of experimental control. The ameliorating effect as observed in test rats against the experimental control rats in this study, could be as a result of M.oleifera extract. The extract may have offered a protective effect against the severity of the induced sodium chloride in the test rats. This study has revealed the protective effect of aqueous extract of M.oleifera on nephrotoxicity and liver injury induced by sodium chloride in Wistar albino rats.

Aqueous extract, liver injury, Moringa oleifera, nephrotoxicity, sodium chloride.

Article Details

How to Cite
Constance, N., Nkeiruka, O.-A., Joy, D.-N., Ijeoma, N. C., Ahamefula, E., & Chidimma, A. (2020). Protective Effect of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera on Nephrotoxicity and Liver Injury Induced by Sodium Chloride in Wistar Albino Rats. Asian Journal of Research in Nephrology, 3(3), 14-21. Retrieved from
Original Research Article


Duru MKC, Arukwe U, Amadi, BA. Bioactive constituents and macronutrients composition of anti-malarial concoction used in Umunchi village in Isiala Mbano L.G.A of Imo State, Nigeria. International Science Research Journal. 2011;3:61–64.

Monago-Ighorodje C, Duru M, Adindu E, Nwauche K, Ezekwe A, Nosiri I, Odika P, Onyeabo C, Ogar I, Berezi EP, Ugoh AI, Eboagwu I, Otta E. Effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Vinca major L. on biochemical parameters and glucose level of alloxan induced diabetic rats. 2019;18(32):1054-1068.

Duru M, Amadi B, Ugbogu A, Eze A. Effect of “udu” an antimalarial herbal preparation on visceral organ weight and blood lipid profiles in wistar rats. Journal of Pharmacy and Clinical Sciences. 2014;8:1-7.

Ibegbulem CO, Eyong EU, Essien EU. Biochemical effects of drinking Terminalia catappa Linn. decoction in Wistar rats. African Journal of Biochemistry Research. 2011;5(8):237-243.

Nwachukwu MI, Duru MKC, Nwachukwu IO, Obasi CC, Uzoechi AU, Ezenwa CM, Anumodu CK. In-vitro phytochemical characterization and antibacterial activity of Newbouldia laevis (boundary tree) on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Asian Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2017;2(1):30-36.

Duru MKC, Amadi BA, Eze AE, Ugbogu AE, Onuoha N. In vivo studies of Solanum aethiopicum fruit on some biochemical parameters using rats. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2013;5(2):1-4.

Okwu DE. Phytochemicals and vitamin content of indigenous species of South Eastern Nigeria. J. Sustain. Agric Environ. 2004;6:30-34.

Amadi B, Onuoha N, Amadi C, Ugbogu A, Duru M. Elemental, amino acid and phytochemical constituents of fruits of three different species of eggplants. International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 2013;3(2):200-202.

Nwachukwu MI, Duru MKC, Amadi BA, Nwachukwu IO. Comparative evaluation of phytoconstituents, antibacterial activities and proximate contents of fresh, oven-dried uncooked and cooked samples of Buchholzia coriacea seed and their effects on hepatocellular integrity International. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention. 2014;3(6):41-4.

Nwachukwu MI, Duru MKC, Nwachukwu IO. Antifungal properties and effect of fresh, oven dried uncooked and cooked seeds of Buchholzia coriacea on haematology and kidney. Elixir Food Science. 2013;64:19350-19356.

Amadi BA, Agomuo EN, Duru, MKC. Toxicological studies of Asmina triloba leaves on haematology, liver, kidney using rat model. International Science Research Journal. 2013;4(2):11-17.

Neuwinger HD. African traditional medicine, a dictionary of plants application, Medpharm GmbH Publishers, Stuttgart,German. 2000;589.

Gill LS. Ethnomedical uses of plants in Nigeria. University of Benin Press, Nigeria. 1992;215.

Amadi BA, Duru MKC, Agomuo EN. The chemical profiles of leaf, stem, and flower of Ageratum conyzoides. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences and Research. 2012;2(4): 428-43.

Duru M, Eboagwu I, Kalu W, Odika P. Nutritional, anti-nutritional and biochemical studies on the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus. EC Nutrition. 2019; 14(1):36- 59.

Duru M, Nwadike C, Ezekwe A, Nwaogwugwu C, Eboagwu I, Odika P, Njoku S, Chukwudoruo C. Evaluation of nutritional, anti-nutritional and some biochemical studies on Pleurotus squarrosulus (Mont.) singer using rats. African Journal of Biochemistry Research. 2018;12(2):7-27.

Duru MKC, Amadi BA, Amadi CT, Lele KC, Anudike JC, Chima-Ezika OR, Osuocha K. Toxic effect of carica papaya bark on body weight, haematology, and some biochemical parameters. Biokemistri. 2012;24(2):67-71.

Duru M, Agomuo E, Amadi B, Iheanacho A, Nutritional evaluation and some biochemical Studies on Ageratum conyzoides using its different parts. Proceedings of the 35th Annual International Conference, Workshop & Exhibition of Chemical Society of Nigeria. 2012;1:372-379.

Agomuo EN, Duru MKC, Amadi BA. Some bioactive constituents of Asmina triloba (Pawpaw) leaf variety. International Science Research Journal. 2013;4(2):18-22.

Ugbogu AE, Okezie E, Uche-Ikonne C, Duru M, Atasie OC. Toxicity evaluation of the aqueous stem extracts of Senna alata in wistar rats. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016;4(4):80-86.

Duru MKC, Agomuo EN, Amadi BA. Biochemical studies on “udu” an antimalarial concoction used in Umunchi village, Isiala Mbano L.G.A of Imo State, Nigeria. Continental J. Pharmacology and Toxicology Research. 2012;5(2):28-34.

World Health Organization (WHO). Promotion and development of traditional medicine. Tech. Rep. Series. 1978;622.

Duru M, Amadi B, Agomuo E, Adindu E. Chemical profile of an antimalarial concoction “Udu” used in Umunchi autonomous community in Isiala Mbano L.G.A of Imo State, Nigeria. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2012;3(3):444-447.

Amadi BA, Arukwe U, Duru MKC, Adindu EA, Ufornwa EC, Odika PC. The effect of fermentation on anti-nutrients, carbohydrates and vitamin contents of Pentaclethra macrophylla Seed. International Science Research Journal. 2011;3:74-77.

Sofowora A. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. Spectrum Books Limited, Ibadan; 2006.

Adebajo AO, Adewumi, CO, Essein EE. Antiinfective agents of higher plants. International Symposium of Medicinal Plants, 5th Edn. University of Ife, Nigeria 1983;152–158.

Okoli RI, Aigbe O, Ohaju-obodo JO, Mensah JK. Medicinal Herbs used for Managing Some Common Ailments among Esan people of Edo State, Nigeria. Pak. J. Nutr. 2007;6(5):490-696.

Duru M, Ugbogu A, Amadi B, Odika P, Chima-Ezika R, Anudike J, Osuocha K. Chemical constituents of Buchholzia coriacea seed. Proceedings of the 35th Annual International Conference, Workshop & Exhibition of Chemical Society of Nigeria. 2012;2:39-45.

Okoroh PN, Duru MKC, Onuoha SC, Amadi BA. Proximate composition, phytochemical and mineral analysis of the fruits of Ficus Capensis. International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2019;8(9):83-88.

Amadi BA, Arukwe U, Duru MKC, Amadi CT, Adindu EA, Egejuru L, Odika PC. Phytonutrients and antinutrients screening of D. edulis fruits at different maturation stages. Journal of Natural Product Plant Resourse. 2012;2(4):530-533.

Duru M, Amadi C, Ugbogu A, Eze A, Amadi B. Phytochemical, vitamin and proximate composition of Dacryodes edulis fruit at different stages of maturation. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research. 2012;2(4):437-441.

Agomuo EN, Amadi BA, Duru MKC. Some biochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of Persea americana. International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences. 2011;11(3):565-569.

Sengupta ME, Keraita B, Olsen A, Boateng OK, Thamsborg SM, Pálsdóttir GR, Dalsgaard A. Use of Moringa oleifera seed extracts to reduce helminth egg numbers and turbidity in irrigation water, Water Res. 2012;46:3646–3656.

Ravikumar K, Sheej AK. Heavy metal removal from water using Moringa oleifera seed coagulant and double filtration, Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res. 2013;4:10–13.

Jahn SA, Musnad HA, Burgstaller H. The tree that purifies water: Cultivating multipurpose Moringaceae in the Sudan, Unasylva. 1986;38:23–28.

Fahey J. Moringa oleifera: A review of the medical evidence for its nutritional, therapeutic, and prophylactic properties, Trees Life J. 2005;1:1–33.

Mbikay M. Therapeutic potential of Moringa oleifera leaves in chronichyperglycemia and dyslipidemia: A review, Front. Pharmacol. 2012;3:1–12.

Gopalakrishnan, L, Doriya K, Kumar DS. Moringa oleifera: A review on nutritive importance and its medicinal application. Food Science and Human Wellness. 2016; 5:49–56.

Ibok Oduro WOE, Deborah O. Nutritional potential of two leafy vegetables: Moringa oleifera and Ipomoea batatas leaves. Scientific Research and Essay. 2008;3(2): 057-060.

Suhartini S, Hidayat N, Rosaliana E. Influence of powdered Moringa oleifera seeds and natural filter media on the characteristics of tapiocastarch wastewater. Int. J. Recycl. Org. Waste Agric. 2013;2:1–11.

Vincent D, Sophie DS, Eduardo S. Sodium chloride 0.9%: Nephrotoxic crystalloid? Rev. Med. Suisse.2016;12(504):270-274.

Wang G, Yeung C, Wong W, Zhang N, Wei Y, Zhang J, Wong C, Tang J, Chuai M, Lee KKH, Wang L, Yang X. Liver fibrosis can be induced by high salt intake through excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2016;64(7):1610–1617.

Ikewuchi JC, Ikewuchi CC. Anti-cholesterolemic effect of aqueous extract of the leaves of Chromolaena odorata (L) King and Robinson (Asteraceace): Potential for reduction of cardiovascular risk. Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. 2011;12(2):385-391.

Lorke D. A new approach to practical acute toxicity test. Institute Fur Toxicologie, Bayer AG, Friedrich – Ebert- Strasse. 1983;217:D-5600.

Lethal dose table. Hazardous waste; 2016. Available: M4_L4.1_S_Key_Final-1.pdf (Accessed on 15th of July, 2019).

National Institute of Health. Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. U.S. Department of health education and welfare. Washington, D.C.: NIH Publication; 1985.

Searcy RL, Reardon JE, Foreman JA. A new photometric method for serum urea nitrogen determination. American Journal of Medical Technology. 1976;33(1):15-20.

Larsen K. Creatinine assay by a reaction-kinetic principle. Clinica Chimica Acta. 1971;41:209-217.

Forrester RL, Watafe LJ, Silverman DA, Pierre KJ. Enzymatic method for the determination of CO2 in serum. Clinical Chemistry.1979;22(2):243–245.

Reitman S, Frankel S. A Colorimetric Method for the Determination of Serum Glutamic Oxalacetic and Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminases. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1957;28(1):56-63.

Babson LA, Greeley SJ, Coleman CM, Philips GD. Serum alkaline phosphatase determination. Clinical Chemistry. 1966;1: 482-490.

Doumas BT, Perry BW, Sasse EA, Straumfjord JV. Standardization in bilirubin assays: evaluation of selected methods and stability of bilirubin solutions. Clinical Chemistry. 1973;19(9):984-93.

Onu M, Igwemma AA. Applied statistical techniques for business and basic sciences, Skillmark Media, 2nd edition; 2000.

Islam R, Alam MJ. Evaluation of liver protective activity of Moringa oleifera bark extract in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats; 2019. DOI: https://doi. org/10.1101/513002.

This version posted January 7, 2019. (Accessed on the 20th May 2020] bioRxiv preprint

Das N, Sikder K, Ghosh S, Fromenty B, Dey S. Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract prevents early liver injury and restores antioxidant status in mice fed with high-fat diet. Indian J Exp Biol. 2012;50(6):404-12.