Main Article Content
Background: Recently, death arising from hepatic and renal related diseases is on the increase; thus, several researches have focused on plant materials with hepato- and nephron-protective potentials.
Aim: This study therefore sought to investigate the effect of tiger nut on hepatic and renal indices of Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six each. Animals in group A were administered normal saline solution while those in groups B, C and D were administered 1, 2 and 4 mL/kg body weight of undiluted tiger nut milk respectively for twenty-eight days. Administration was done 12 hourly via oral route. At the end of the administration, the rats were sacrificed after an overnight fast under diethyl ether as anesthesia. Blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture. Hepatic and renal indices were determined using standard methods.
Results: Tiger nut milk was observed to decrease the activities of serum AST, ALT and ALP (hepatic biomarker enzymes). The decrease was only significant (p<0.05) when the activities of AST and ALT of animals treated with 4 mL/kg body weight of tiger nut milk were compared with those in control animals. Similarly, tiger nut milk was observed to decrease the serum concentrations of creatinine and urea. The decrease was only significant (p<0.05) when the concentration of urea of animals treated with 2 and 4 mL/kg body weight of tiger nut milk were respectively compared with those in control animals.
Conclusion: Observations from this study showed that tiger nut has positive effect on hepatic and renal indices; thus possesses hepato- and nephro-protective potentials. Consumption of this plant tuber is recommended for healthy liver and kidneys.
Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu U, Ekenjoku JA, Ogbuagu EO, Airaodion EO, Okoroukwu VN. Hepato-protective efficiency of ethanol leaf extract of Moringa oleifera against hydrocarbon exposure. International Journal of advances in Herbal and Alternative Medicine. 2019;03(01):32-41.
Airaodion AI, Megwas AU, Ekenjoku JA, Ngwogu KO, Ngwogu AC. Nephro- and hepato-toxicity of common household insecticides used in Nigeria. International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2020;3(2):21-28.
Airaodion AI, Alabi OJ, Ogbuagu EO, Atiba FA, Olawoyin DS,. Nephro and hepatotoxic effect of air freshener in Wistar rats. Asian Journal of Research in Nephrology. 2020;3(2):1-9.
Airaodion AI, Ene AC, Ogbuagu EO, Okoroukwu VN, Ekenjoku JA, Ogbuagu U. Biochemical changes associated with consumption (by rats) of garri processed by traditional and instant mechanical methods. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology. 2019;2(4):1-11.
Chatterjee TK. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective properties, in herbal opinions, third ed. Books & Allied (P) Ltd., Calcutta. 2000;135.
Airaodion AI, Akinmolayan JD, Ogbuagu EO, Esonu CE, Ogbuagu U. Preventive and therapeutic activities of methanolic extract of Talinum triangulare leaves against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology. 2019;11(7): 85-96.
Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu EO, Ewa O, Ogbuagu U, Awosanya OO, Adekale OA. Ameliorative efficacy of methanolic extract of Corchorus olitorius leaves against acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology. 2019; 7(6):1-9.
Sánchez-Zapata E, Fernández-López J, Pérez-Alvarez AJ. Tiger Nut (Cyperus esculentus) Commercialization: Health Aspects, Composition, Properties, and Food Applications. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2012;11(4):366–377.
Pascual-Seva N, San-Bautista A, Galarza, SL, Maroto JV, Pascual B. Yield and Irrigation Water Use Efficiency for Ridge - and Bed - cultivated Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. Sativus Boeck). Acta Hort. 2012;936:125-132.
Zhang HY, Hanna MA, Ali Y, Nan L. Yellow nut-sedge tuber oil as a fuel. Industrial Crops and Products. 1996;5(3):177–181
Ogbuagu EO, Airaodion AI. Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) boosts fertility in male Wistar rats. Asian Research Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2020;3(3): 8-18.
Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu EO. Consumption of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) improves haematopoiesis in Wistar rats. International Journal of Research and Report in Hematology. 2020;4(5):1.9
Reitman S, Frankel S. A colorimetric method for determination of serum glutamate oxaloacetate and glutamic pyruvate transaminase. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1957;28:56-58.
Babson AL, Grecley SJ, Coleman CM, Phillips GE. The use of phenolphthalein in monophosphate as a substrate for serum alkaline phosphatase. Clinical Chemistry. 1966;12:482.
Toora BD, Rejagopal G. Measurement of creatinine concentration by Jaffe’s Reaction. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2002;40(3):352-354.
Fesus PD, Pressac M, Braconnier F, Aymard P. Automated determination of urinary Na, K, inorganic phosphate, urea, and creatunine without sample dilution, with the RA-XT. Clinical Chemistry. 1983; 35:481-483.
Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu EO, Ogbuagu U, Adeniji AR, Agunbiade AP, Airaodion EO. Hepatoprotective effect of Parkia biglobosa on acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2019;2(1):1-11.
Oguwike FN, Eluke BC, Eze RI, Asika CM, Nwosu PN, Nwafor C, Onumonu C. The effects of Cyperus esculentus (Tiger nut) on haematological and biochemical profile of male Hypercholesteremic Subjects in Uli, Anambra State Nigeria. Greener Journal of Medical Sciences. 2017;7(4): 036-041.
Towle HC, Kaytor EN, Shih HM. Regulation of the expression of lipogenic enzymes by carbohydrates. Annual Review of Nutrition. 1997;17:405-433
Zubay G, Schwartz D, Beckwith J. Mechanism of activation of catabolite- sensitive genes: a positive control system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1970;66(1):104-110.
Ogbuagu EO, Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu U, Airaodion EO. Prophylactic propensity of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaves against acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology. 2019;11(7):37-46.
Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu EO, Ekenjoku JA, Ogbuagu U, Airaodion EO. Therapeutic effect of methanolic extract of telfairia occidentalis leaves against acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in wistar rats. International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology. 2019;11(7):179-189.
Nwawuba SU, Okechukwu FC. The effect of Cyperus esculentus (Tiger nut) oil on liver, kidney and hematological biomarkers in low dose streptozocin and high fat diet exposed male Wistar rats. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 2018;3(4):148-152.
Hassan HA. The potential effect of tiger nut oil on some haemato-biochemical blood indices in male albino rats. Egyptian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2007;3: 49-54.
Roselló-Soto E, Garcia C, Fessard A, Barba FJ, Munekata PES, Lorenzo JM, Remize F. Nutritional and microbiological quality of tiger nut tubers (Cyperus esculentus), derived plant-based and lactic fermented beverages. Fermentation. 2019; 5(3):1-13.
Wright PJ, Plummer DT. The use of urinary enzyme measurement to detect renal damage caused by Nephrotoxic compounds. Biochem. Pharmacol. 1974; 23:98-112.
Akanji MA, Olagoke OA, Oloyede OB. Effect of chronic consumption of metabisulphite on the integrity of the rat kidney cellular system. Toxicology. 1993; 81:173-179.
Brzóska MM, Moniuszko-Jakoniuk J, Piłat-Marcinkiewicz B, Sawicki B. Liver and kidney function and histology in rats exposed to cadmium and ethanol. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 2003;38(1): 2–10.
Airaodion AI, Ngwogu KO, Ngwogu AC, Megwas AU, Ekenjoku JA. Nephrotoxicity of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) in Wistar rats. International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research. 2020;3(1):1-10.
Perrone RD, Madias NE, Levey AS. Serum creatinine as an index of renal function: New insights into old concepts. Clinical Chemistry. 1992;38(10):1933–1953.