Nephro and Hepatotoxic Effect of Air-Freshener in Wistar Rats

Main Article Content

Augustine I. Airaodion
Oladeji J. Alabi
Emmanuel O. Ogbuagu
Festus A. Atiba
Dolapo S. Olawoyin

Abstract

Aim: The present study was designed to examine the effect of inhaling ‘sunlight’ air-freshener on renal and hepatic indices of Wistar rats.

Methodology: Thirty Wistar rats were divided into three groups of ten each and kept in different rooms. Rats in group 1 were not exposed to any substance; those in groups 2 and 3 were exposed to sunlight air freshener for 8 hours daily for 28 days by inhalation. After 28 days of exposure, animals in group 3 were allowed to recover for 14 days. Throughout the experiment, all animals were fed ad libitum with standard feed and drinking water. At the end of the experiment, rats                         were sacrificed after an overnight fast under diethyl ether as anesthesia. Blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture. Hepatic and renal indices were determined using standard                       methods.

Results: Air-freshener significantly (p<0.05) increased hepatic and renal indices investigated when compared to those in animals in the control group. The effect on hepatic indices was reversed when animals were allowed to recover for 7 days after 28 days exposure. However, the effect on renal indices was sustained after 7 days recovery period.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that frequent exposure to air-fresheners poses a dangerous risk to the health of the liver and kidney. This is due to the presence of toxic chemicals such as the volatile organic compounds, which are toxic even at very low concentration, thus proper awareness should be conducted to educate consumers on the risk associated with the frequent use of this product.

Keywords:
Air-freshener, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, pollutant

Article Details

How to Cite
Airaodion, A. I., Alabi, O. J., Ogbuagu, E. O., Atiba, F. A., & Olawoyin, D. S. (2020). Nephro and Hepatotoxic Effect of Air-Freshener in Wistar Rats. Asian Journal of Research in Nephrology, 3(2), 1-9. Retrieved from https://journalajrn.com/index.php/AJRN/article/view/30099
Section
Original Research Article

References

Steinemann AC. Fragranced consumer products and undisclosed ingredients. Environmental Impact Assessment Rev. 2009;29:32-38.

Cohen A, Janssen S, Solomon G. Clearing the Air: Hidden Hazards of Air Fresheners; 2007.

Available:https://www.nrdc.org/sites/default/files/airfresheners.pdf

NRDC. Clearing the Air: Hidden Hazards of Air Fresheners, National Resources Defense Council, New York, NY, USA; 2007.

Available:https://www.nrdc.org/sites/default/files/airfreshners.pdf

Kim S, Hong SH, Bong CK. Characterization of air freshener emission: The potential health effect. Journal of Toxicological Science. 2015;40:535-550.

Singer BC, Coleman BK, Destaillats H, Hodgson AT, Luden MM, Weschler CJ, Nazaroff WW. Indoor secondary pollutants from cleaning products and air freshener use in the presence of ozone. Atmos. Environ. 2006;40:6696-6710.

Destaillats H, Lunden MM, Singer BC. Indoor secondary pollutants from household product emissions in the presence of ozone: A bench-scale chamber study. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2006;40:4421-4428.

Carslaw N. A new detailed chemical model for indoor air pollution. Atoms. Environs. 2007;41:1164-1179.

Wang F, Li C, Liu W. Oxidative damage and genotoxic effect in mice caused by sub-chronic exposure to low-dose volatile organic compounds. Inhalation Toxicol. 2013;25:235-242.

Airaodion AI, Olawoyin DS, Alabi OJ, Atiba F. Air freshener induced oxidative stress and adversely affects immunity. International Journal of Health, Safety and Environment. 2020;7(6):34-42.

Airaodion AI, Atiba FA, Olawoyin DS, Alabi OJ. Frequent exposure to air-freshener reduces male fertility. Asian Research Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2020;4(2):1-8.

Akingbade AM, Saalu IC, Oyebanji OO, Oyeniran DA, Akunna GG. Rhodinol based Incense Testiculotoxicity in Albino Rats: Testicular histology, spermatogenic and biochemical evaluations. Journal of pharmacology and Toxicology. 2014;9: 68-81.

Reitman S, Frankel S. A colorimetric method for determination of serum glutamate oxaloacetate and glutamic pyruvate transaminase. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1957;28:56-58.

Babson AL, Grecley SJ, Coleman CM, Phillips GE. The use of phenolphthalein in monophosphate as a substrate for serum alkaline phosphatase. Clinical Chemistry. 1966;12:482.

Toora BD, Rejagopal G. Measurement of creatinine concentration by Jaffe’s reaction. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2002;40(3):352–354.

Fesus PD, Pressac M, Braconnier F, Aymard P. Automated determination of urinary Na, K, inorganic phosphate, urea, and creatinine without sample dilution, with the RA-XT. Clinical Chemistry. 1983;35: 481-483.

Verrill HL, Pickard NA, Gruemer HD. Mechanisms of cellular enzyme release. I. Alteration in membrane fluidity and permeability. Clinical Chemistry. 1997; 23(12):2219–2225.

Yuningtyaswari AE, Sofiana AD. The effects of air freshener exposure at an early age on histological white rat (Rattus norvegicus) liver cells. AIP Conference Proceedings 1744, 020064; 2016.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4953538

Published Online: 14 June 2016

Vroon DH, Israili Z. Aminotransferases. In: Walker H.K, Hall W.D, Hurst J.W, editors. Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition. Boston: Butterworths. Chapter 99;1990.

Available:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK425/

Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu EO, Ogbuagu U, Adeniji AR, Agunbiade AP, Airaodion EO. Hepatoprotective effect of Parkia biglobosa on acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2019;4(6):1-10.

Airaodion AI, Akinmolayan JD, Ogbuagu EO, Esonu CE, Ogbuagu U. Preventive and therapeutic activities of methanolic extract of Talinum triangulare leaves against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology. 2019;11(7): 85-96.

Giannini EG, Testa R, Savarino V. Liver enzyme alteration: A guide for clinicians. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2005;172(3):367–379.

Schmidt E, Schmidt FW. Aspekte der Enzyme-Diagnostik, Die Medizinische Welt. 1970;21:805–816.

Kumar J, Lind L, Salihovi S. Persistent organic pollutants and liver dysfunction biomarkers in a population-based human sample of men and women. Environmental Research. 2014;134:251–256.

Martha LC, Hernández-Muñoz R. Is liver enzyme release really associated with cell necrosis induced by oxidant stress?; 2016.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/3529149

Tang M, Xie Y, Yi Y, Wang W. Effects of formaldehyde on germ cells of male mice. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2003;32:544-548.

Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu EO, Ewa O, Ogbuagu U, Awosanya OO, Adekale OA. Ameliorative efficacy of methanolic extract of Corchorus olitorius leaves against acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology. 2019; 7(6):1-9.

Ogbuagu EO, Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu U, Airaodion EO. Prophylactic propensity of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaves against acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology. 2019;11(7):37-46.

Beall JR, Ulsamer AG. Hepatotoxicity associated with formaldehyde exposure. Journal Toxicology and Environmental Health. 1984;14(1):1–21.

McIntyre AS, Long RG. Fatal fulminant hepatic failure in a 'solvent abuser'. Postgrad Med J. 1992;68(795):29-30.

Flanagan RJ, Ruprah M, Meredith TJ, Ramsey JD. An introduction to the clinical toxicology of volatile substances. Drug Safety. 1990;5:359-383.

Sotaniemi EA, Sutinen S, Sutinen S, Arranto AJ, Pelkonen RO. Liver injury in subjects occupationally exposed to chemicals in low doses. Acta Med Scand. 1982;212:207-215.

Sherlock S. Disease of the liver and biliary system.8th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publication; 1981.

Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu U, Ekenjoku JA, Ogbuagu EO, Airaodion EO, Okoroukwu VN. Hepato-protective efficiency of ethanol leaf extract of Moringa oleifera against hydrocarbon exposure. International Journal of advances in Herbal and Alternative Medicine. 2019;03(01):32-41.

Kamal A. Estimation of blood urea (BUN) and serum creatinine level in patients of renal disorder. IJFALS. 2014;4(4):199–202.

Airaodion AI, Ene AC, Ogbuagu EO, Okoroukwu VN, Ekenjoku JA, Ogbuagu U. Biochemical changes associated with consumption (by rats) of “garri” processed by traditional and instant mechanical methods. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology. 2019; 2(4):1-11.

Ajayi EIO, Adetunji BJ, Adeleke MA, Onilejin AO, Idrees MO, Babalola TE. Emerging dichlorvos-based air freshener pertube kidney function in male albino rats. In: Innovations in Food Technology - Current Perspectives and Future Goals, Eds Pragya Mishra, Raghvendra Raman Mishra, Ratna Shanker Mishra, Charles Oluwaseun Adetunji. 1st ed. India: Springer. 2020;1:466-476.