Main Article Content
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with atherosclerosis, heart failure, valvular heart disease, arrhythmia, cardiovascular calcification, and sudden cardiac death. The calcification of the cardiovascular system increases as CKD progresses and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.
This study was undertaken to assess vascular calcification and its risk factors in diabetics with early CKD.
Methods: This is a prospective, observational study. Data analysis of the outcomes was done by SPSS-17 version. Patients were enrolled from the nephrology out-patient/ in-patient department at St Johns Medical College hospital, Bangalore. Patients were studied between July 2010 to July 2012 for a period of 2 years.
Study Population: The study population included 60 diabetic patientswere divided into 2 groups (Group A- diabetic patients with normal renal functions; Group B- diabetic patients with CKD) in 1:1 ratio after matching the age, duration of diabetes and history of smoking.
Results: In this study we observed that vascular and valvular calcification were significantly higher in the Group B (diabetics with CKD) as compared to Group A (diabetics with normal renal functions).
Higher serum phosphorous levels and lower mean eGFR levels showed significant correlation with vascular calcification in Group B.
A significant correlation was found between lower mean eGFR levels and vascular calcification in Group B. Also, correlation was found to be significant between vascular calcification and valvular calcification in Group B.
Sarnak MJ, Levey AS, Schoolwerth AC, et al. Kidney disease as a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease: a statement from the American heart association councils on kidney in cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure research, clinical cardiology, and epidemiology and prevention. Circulation, 2003;108:2154–2169
Churchill BM, Patri P, Cama R, Inrig JK. TNF-α, TNF Receptors and Their Complex Implications in Therapy. Asian Journal of Immunology, June 2020;4(1),36-50.
Accessed:http://www.journalaji.com/index.php/AJI/article/view/30127. Accessed on 16 June 2020.
Benz K, Hilgers K, Daniel C, Amann K. Vascular Calcification in Chronic Kidney Disease: The Role of Inflammation. International Journal of Nephrology. 2018; 8:7.
Sarnak MJ, Coronado BE, Greene T, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in chronic renal insufficiency. Clin Nephrol.2003;57:327–335.
Fox CS, Larson MG, Vasan RS, et al. Cross-sectional association of kidney function with valvular and annular calcification: the framinghamheart study. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17:521–527
Stary HC. The sequence of cell and matrix changes in atherosclerotic lesions of coronary arteries in the first 40 years of life, Eur Heart J. 1990;11:3–19.
Chitralli DK, Churchill BM. Mineral and bone disorders in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease. International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research. Accepted for publication; 2011.
Davies MR, Hruska KA. Pathophysiological mechanisms of vascular calcification in end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int 2001; 60:472-479
Blacher J, Guerin AP, Pannier B, Marchais SJ, London GM. Arterial calcifications, arterial stiffness, and cardiovascular risk in end-stage renal disease. Hypertension. 2001;38:938-942.